Geography of Taos County, New Mexico

Geography of Taos County, New Mexico

Taos County is a captivating and culturally rich county located in the northern part of the state of New Mexico, United States. Known for its stunning natural beauty, rich history, and vibrant arts scene, Taos County is a destination that attracts visitors from around the world. Covering an area of approximately 2,204 square miles, Taos County offers a diverse landscape that includes mountains, valleys, rivers, and mesas.

Location and Borders

According to Lawfaqs, Taos County is situated in the north-central part of New Mexico, bordered by the counties of Rio Arriba to the west, Mora to the east, Colfax to the south, and the state of Colorado to the north. The county seat is the town of Taos, which is also the largest town in the county and a cultural hub for the region.

Topography and Terrain

The topography of Taos County is characterized by its rugged mountains, high desert plains, and deep river valleys. The county lies within the southern Rocky Mountains and encompasses parts of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the Carson National Forest.

The eastern part of Taos County features high desert terrain, with mesas and plateaus punctuated by deep canyons carved by rivers such as the Rio Grande and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. The western part of the county is more mountainous, with peaks rising to elevations of over 13,000 feet (3,962 meters) above sea level. Wheeler Peak, the highest point in New Mexico, is located in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.


Taos County experiences a semi-arid climate, with four distinct seasons marked by hot summers, cold winters, and moderate precipitation. The region’s climate is influenced by its high elevation and continental location, resulting in temperature variations and occasional weather extremes.

Summer temperatures in Taos County typically range from the 70s to 80s Fahrenheit (around 21-32°C) in the valleys and plains, with cooler temperatures in the mountains. However, temperatures can reach into the 90s Fahrenheit (around 32°C) or higher during heatwaves. Thunderstorms are common during the summer months, bringing brief periods of heavy rain and lightning.

Winter temperatures are colder, with average highs in the 30s to 40s Fahrenheit (around -1 to 4°C) and lows in the teens to 20s Fahrenheit (around -7 to -1°C). Snowfall is common in the mountains and higher elevations, with snow cover persisting for several months. Skiing and snowboarding are popular winter activities in Taos County, with several ski resorts located in the region.

Rivers and Waterways

Taos County is traversed by several rivers, streams, and waterways, which play a vital role in the region’s ecology, agriculture, and recreational activities. The Rio Grande, one of the longest rivers in North America, flows through the western part of the county, providing water for irrigation and habitat for fish and wildlife.

Other notable rivers in Taos County include the Rio Pueblo de Taos, which flows through the Taos Valley and is a popular spot for fishing and rafting, and the Red River, which originates in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and offers opportunities for outdoor recreation such as hiking and camping.

Lakes and Reservoirs

While Taos County does not have any large natural lakes, the region is home to several reservoirs and man-made lakes that provide water for irrigation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Eagle Nest Lake, located in the Moreno Valley, is one of the largest reservoirs in the county and offers fishing, boating, and camping opportunities.

Other notable lakes and reservoirs in Taos County include Cabresto Lake, Hopewell Lake, and Heron Lake, each offering scenic beauty and recreational amenities for visitors. These lakes and reservoirs are popular destinations for fishing, kayaking, and picnicking, particularly during the summer months.

Parks and Recreation Areas

Taos County is blessed with abundant natural beauty and outdoor recreational opportunities, with numerous parks, wilderness areas, and national forests that showcase the region’s diverse landscapes. The Carson National Forest, located in the western part of the county, encompasses over 1.5 million acres of pristine wilderness, offering hiking, camping, and wildlife viewing opportunities.

Other popular destinations in Taos County include the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, a vast landscape of canyons, mesas, and volcanic cones along the Rio Grande, and the Wheeler Peak Wilderness, home to New Mexico’s highest peak and miles of hiking trails.

Cultural Heritage

Taos County has a rich cultural heritage dating back thousands of years, with a blend of Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo influences. The town of Taos is known for its historic adobe architecture, art galleries, and vibrant cultural scene, including the renowned Taos Pueblo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States.

Other notable cultural attractions in Taos County include the Kit Carson Home and Museum, the Harwood Museum of Art, and the Taos Art Museum at Fechin House, each offering insights into the region’s history, art, and culture.


Taos County, New Mexico, is a region of breathtaking natural beauty, rich cultural heritage, and outdoor adventure. From its rugged mountains and deep river canyons to its vibrant arts scene and historic landmarks, the county offers something for everyone to enjoy.

Whether exploring the wilderness of the Carson National Forest, visiting the ancient ruins of Taos Pueblo, or skiing down the slopes of Wheeler Peak, visitors to Taos County are sure to be captivated by its scenic landscapes and rich cultural heritage. With its diverse geography, vibrant communities, and endless opportunities for exploration and discovery, Taos County is a destination that inspires wonder and invites visitors to experience the magic of the Southwest.