Jordan Wiki

Jordan is located in the heart of the Middle East, bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, Israel and the West Bank to the west. It also shares a short coastline with the Red Sea to the southwest.


Jordan’s geography is characterized by rugged mountains, vast desert expanses, and the fertile Jordan Valley. The climate varies from arid desert conditions to Mediterranean in the west.


Jordan experiences hot, dry summers and cool winters, with variations depending on altitude and location. The desert regions are extremely hot during the summer months, while the highlands enjoy milder temperatures.


The fauna of Jordan is adapted to its arid climate, with species such as Arabian oryx, ibex, and desert foxes found in the desert regions. Birdlife is abundant, especially around water sources and nature reserves.

Longest Rivers

The Jordan River is the longest river in Jordan, flowing from the Sea of Galilee in Israel to the Dead Sea. It plays a significant role in the country’s history and mythology.

Highest Mountains

Jabal Umm ad Dami is the highest peak in Jordan, standing at approximately 1,854 meters (6,083 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Jabal Rum, Jabal Al-Mazmar, and Jabal Ram.


Jordan’s history is deeply intertwined with the rise and fall of ancient civilizations, including the Nabateans, Romans, and Ottomans, as well as its modern political developments.


The region now known as Jordan has been inhabited since ancient times, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Paleolithic period. Early civilizations, such as the Ammonites, Edomites, and Moabites, flourished in the area.

Ancient Period

One of the most famous ancient civilizations to emerge in Jordan was the Nabatean Kingdom, known for its impressive rock-cut architecture in Petra. The region was also controlled by the Romans and Byzantines, leaving behind significant archaeological sites.

Islamic Era

Jordan became part of the Islamic Caliphate in the 7th century and later came under the control of various Islamic dynasties, including the Umayyads, Abbasids, and Ottomans. The region played a crucial role in the spread of Islam and Islamic civilization.

Modern Age

In the 20th century, Jordan emerged as a modern nation-state following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It was initially part of the British Mandate of Palestine before gaining independence in 1946. The Hashemite dynasty has ruled Jordan since its inception, with King Abdullah II currently serving as the monarch.


Jordan has a population of approximately 10.5 million people, consisting of diverse ethnic and religious groups. The majority of the population is of Arab descent, with a significant Palestinian refugee population. Islam is the dominant religion, with a small Christian minority.

Administrative Divisions

Jordan is divided into 12 governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the central government. These governorates are further divided into districts and sub-districts.

List of Administrative Divisions with Population

  1. Amman Governorate – Population: 4,007,526
  2. Irbid Governorate – Population: 1,911,751
  3. Zarqa Governorate – Population: 1,364,732
  4. Balqa Governorate – Population: 588,834
  5. Mafraq Governorate – Population: 287,997
  6. Karak Governorate – Population: 268,237
  7. Ma’an Governorate – Population: 149,000
  8. Madaba Governorate – Population: 145,389
  9. Ajloun Governorate – Population: 146,090
  10. Jerash Governorate – Population: 188,221
  11. Tafilah Governorate – Population: 82,001
  12. Aqaba Governorate – Population: 202,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Amman
  2. Zarqa
  3. Irbid
  4. Russeifa
  5. Al-Salt
  6. Madaba
  7. Aqaba
  8. Jerash
  9. Karak
  10. Tafilah

Education Systems

Education in Jordan is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The country has several universities and colleges, with the University of Jordan and Jordan University of Science and Technology being among the top institutions.


Jordan has a developing transportation infrastructure, with efforts focused on improving road networks and public transportation.


Jordan has several airports, including Queen Alia International Airport in Amman, King Hussein International Airport in Aqaba, and Marka Airport in Amman.


Jordan has limited railway infrastructure, primarily used for freight transport. Plans for expanding passenger rail services are under consideration.


The country has a network of modern highways, with major routes connecting urban centers and border crossings. The total length of highways in Jordan is approximately 8,000 kilometers.


Jordan has two main ports: Aqaba Port on the Red Sea and Port of Aqaba on the Gulf of Aqaba. These ports serve as vital hubs for trade and commerce in the region.

Country Facts

  • Population: 10.5 million
  • Capital: Amman
  • Language: Arabic (official)
  • Religion: Islam (predominantly Sunni)
  • Race: Arab
  • Currency: Jordanian Dinar (JOD)
  • ISO Country Codes: JO
  • International Calling Code: +962
  • Top-level Domain: .jo